Overview of Changzhi stone tablet carving

2022-05-30 0 By

Summary of changzhi stone tablet stone cultural relics to the world 2005, 05 WeiYan changzhi is located in the southeast of Shanxi Province, called to take brand, firm, is one of the earlier development of the Chinese nation, in the long history of the years, the accumulation to save a lot of precious cultural heritage, among them, the only remaining each historical period the stone tablet stone carvings alone thousands of tong (point),Always praised.Ye Changchi, a scholar of the Qing Dynasty, said in His book Yushi, “Most of the Jin steles are collected in pu, Jiang, Ze and Lu.”Stone tablet carving, set record history, chronicle, text, literature, mapping, painting, ornamentation, calligraphy, stone selection, copying, engraving, carving is a traditional cultural form in China.Stone tablets are an important part of traditional history and culture and precious cultural heritage. They are the crystallization of people’s wisdom and creation over thousands of years. They are also precious and detailed materials for the study of history, culture, politics, economy, military, nation, religion, folk customs, art, science and technology.There are 1,635 stone tablets and stone carvings in Changzhi area, which have been registered in the archives. There are more than 1,000 unregistered stone tablets and stone carvings unearthed in recent years, totaling about 3,000 stone tablets, of which 960 have been spread and collected.These inscriptions spread throughout the city’s 13 counties (cities, districts).From the shape can be divided into the following categories: 1. Various types and contents of cliff stone carving, such as the first monument of the Three Jin Dynasty, Cheng Zhe monument, etc.;(2) all kinds of statues, monuments and stone statues with inscriptions;3. Various stone tablets attached to various architectures and natural or cultural landscapes in the past dynasties;4. Stone structure single buildings with inscriptions and stone architectural components with inscriptions, such as burning lighthouse, stone plaques, stone couplets, stone columns, stone column boards, sarcophagi, etc.;5. Epitaph;6. To carve raw stones, such as pottery;7. By building;8. Stone drum of Scripture;9. Stone daily utensils with inscriptions and stone cultural articles and artworks with inscriptions, such as stone tables, stone tables, stone ink-stones, stone screens, etc.;10. Other types of engraved stone carvings, such as boundary piles, boundary tablets, etc.;11. Non-stone imitation stone inscription, such as brick epitaph, terra-cotta architecture inscription.In terms of content,Has the temple, temple, temple, view, warehouse, house, tower, altar, stage, stage, pavilions, Bridges, well, ditch, mountains, rivers, trees, spring, hole, cave, yamen, palace, government, academy, walls, roads, tunnels, stone steps, village, city and village, fort dynasties attached by all kinds of buildings and natural or human landscape, Labour market, enlarge trim, rebuild, repairs, statues, statues, statuesStone tablets, commemorative tablets, inscription, inscription, inscription, landscape, travel, poetry, timing and other stone tablets: there are the emperor and officials, officials and other imperial edicts, ultimatum, decrees, instructions, inscription, calligraphy, poetry, dharma and other stone tablets: there are celebrities in the past shen Dao tablets, merit and virtue tablets, tombstones, line epitaph and other stone tablets;There are tablets of religious scripture: tablets of traditional Chinese medicine tablets of planar engraving drawings: tablets of various village regulations and covenants, tablets of natural and man-made disasters: tablets of public undertakings: tablets of calligraphy, poetry and calligraphy painting tablets of celebrities have boundary tablets;There are monuments to revolutionary martyrs and events.Chuantuo collection of nearly 1,000 stone tablets, the earliest for qinxian County Nanneshui village unearthed yongping two years “Hu Baoxing statue inscription tablet”, the era of the Northern Wei Emperor Xuanwu Yongping two years (509 years) November.The other chronological periods are northern Wei, Eastern Wei, Northern Qi, Northern Zhou, Sui, Tang, Five Dynasties, Song, Jin, Yuan, Ming, Qing, republic of China, until the founding of the New China.There are more than 50 stone tablets of the Northern Dynasty in Changzhi, including cliff carvings, cave temple inscriptions, inscriptions, memorial tablets, alms tablets, pagoda inscriptions and six-edge tablets of the Northern Wei, Eastern Wei, Northern Qi and Northern Zhou dynasties.The famous qinxian Nannieshui village unearthed northern Dynasty stone group, Changzhi County dongcheng village cliff “cheng Zhe gift generation county magistrate”, Qinyuan County eastern Wei “Wang Tianfu statue monument” and so on.Nannishui Stone carvings group is a treasure of Chinese ancient folk stone carvings, which occupies an important position in Chinese carving art and is widely known.From the 1940s and 1950s to the 1990s, about 1126 stone statues from the Northern Dynasty to the Song Dynasty were unearthed in Nannishui Village, Qinxian County.The northern Dynasty stone carvings account for most of them, and the quality is the most exquisite.There are tower stone, single statue, combined statue, statue tablet, vow tablet, tower stone inscription, sporadic stone statue remnant, etc.The earliest for the northern Wei Xuanwu emperor Yongping two years (509 years) In November Hu Baoxing statue inscription, the stone is long block, square column shape, statue in the form of each buddhist niche, all around the upper chisel niche, the lower part of the vow.The statues are one Buddha, one Buddha two Bodhisattvas, two Buddhas, one Foot Maitreya Bodhisattva.High bun, wearing a shouldered garment, Buddha sat down and meditated.The buddhist niche is flat round arch, and the lintel is pointed arch.There are more than 30 inscriptions on water and stone inscriptions of the Northern Wei, Eastern Wei and Northern Qi dynasties, such as statue fragments, tablets of vows, tablets of alms and inscriptions on pagoda stones. These inscriptions provide abundant physical evidence for the study of society, religion, art, calligraphy and the evolution of characters in China.On May 24, 1965, Nanni Water stone Carvings group was listed as a key cultural relic protection unit of Shanxi Province. In October 1989, the central government, the province and the city allocated funds to build nanni water stone carvings museum on Erlang Mountain, south of The city of Qin County for preservation.The monument to Cheng Zhe, the prefect of Dai County, is a cliff inscription, which was originally established in Dongcheng Village, Changzhi County. It was discovered during the Reign of Emperor Guangxu of the Qing Dynasty and is now stored in shanxi Provincial Museum.It is about 135 centimeters high and has 32 lines of 45 characters each.The title of the tablet “dawei balance first year year year jiayin November Geng Chen Shuo three renwu made”, know that the Stone Age of 534 years of the Eastern Wei Emperor xiao Jing balance first year.The inscription describes cheng Zhe (zi Xian), the eldest son of Shangdang, his family background, life experience, conduct, deeds and official positions, which can fill the fault of the history.The inscription on the tablet is small in size, but it is well preserved with exquisite carving and only numbers are missing, which is very precious.Calligraphy pen straight, longitudinal, kai jin whole.Inheriting the lingering thread of the eastern Han Dynasty’s strong straight school, and integrating the wind of han and Wei brick documents, it is a typical representative of the real school of the northern Dynasty’s straight pen li yi.Mr. Hou Jingchang included this tablet in the Book Of Books, which was highly appraised.The statue Monument of Wang Tianfu was unearthed in the ruins of a temple 100 meters south of Baimu Township, 28km southeast of Qinyuan County, in 1958.This tablet is one of the more complete and clear one, the epitaph forehead body, half buried in the soil, only one side, 169 cm high, 68 cm wide on the top, 74 cm wide on the bottom, 27 cm thick.Forehead is carved double chi head, in it is buddhist niche, carved Buddha and bodhisattva, lex.The lower column is 43 centimeters high, with 18 lines of inscription and 11 words in the full line with a diameter of 2.5 centimeters, a total of 193 words, which record the general situation of the statue, time and pray for the relatives and relatives, engraved for the three years of east Wei Tianping (536 years).Shanxi Archaeological Institute “Shanxi Stone Tablet” recorded this tablet, saying that “although the tablet has few words, the calligraphy is strong and simple, vigorous and ancient, which is the best of the eastern Wei Fang brush of Wei Kai.There are about 5 stone tablets of sui Dynasty in Changzhi.Famous “Baotai Temple stele”, “□ Male character Junqiang epitaph” and so on.”Baotai Temple monument” in the sui Kaihuang five years (585 years) stone in the northwest of Licheng County, 4 kilometers of ancient county village, is the county museum.The monument is a body with a height of 200 centimeters and a width of 71 centimeters.The head of the tablet is carved with double chi pan arch, and the center is chiselled with a canopy type Buddhist shrine, carving one Buddha and two Bodhisattvas. The line of the tablet body is carved with a 2.7cm square boundary, 36 vertical and 26 horizontal, with a total inscription of 863 characters, which describes the events of chongying ninth-level floating pagoda.The text style is based on regular script, with mixed seal script and official script, regular script point with strong li meaning and Wei Kai pen meaning.”Mountain right stone carvings congbian” recorded this tablet.The epitaph of Junqiang of Xiong Character was unearthed in Yincheng Village, Changzhi County. The stone was erected in the 13th year of Daye (617), with a height of 50 cm and a width of 51 cm.Description □ Male word Junqiang’s family, life, funeral and other things, the text is regular script in the boundary, fine strength beautiful, the knot is clear, has accumulated the first wind of calligraphy in the early Tang Dynasty, can be a good product.Changzhi existing stone tablet stone carving a total of about 140 in the tang dynasty, the number, variety complete, the eldest son county “crane concept tablet”, “datang Zheng Hui Wang Shiji”, changzhi city “has not carved up tang monument”, “an baozhen good tablet”, “the king of deep epitaph”, “epitaph Zhu Fu king”, pingshun the master mind, drove, xiangyuan “big week even Jane the epitaph”,Licheng County, “The Sage Wang Junjie of Tang Dynasty” and other works can be considered as the masterpiece of grandeur, beauty and delicacy.These tablets have different shapes and styles, such as zheng, xing, cao, li, zhuan and so on. The calligraphy carving is exquisite and perfect, and the writing is simple and smooth. There are many descriptions and praises in the works of ancient stone and stone.”Big Week lian Jian epitaph” word and line, block, grass, seal script four body, and Wu Zetian period words, etc., is listed as the national secondary cultural relics, “mountain right stone carvings congbian” recorded this tablet.It was unearthed near Dongxibaigu Village, about 10 kilometers west of Licheng County, during the reign of Jiaqing in the Qing Dynasty. After liberation, it was moved to the museum collection of the county, and then transferred to the provincial museum.The statue is special in shape, with eight edges and eight sides, with a pedestal and a roof. The title and signature are seal script, and the text is official script.The official history does not contain the details of Wang qing’s native place, birth and life.Guangxu twenty-three years (1897), Shanxi governor Hu Pingzhi will be recorded in the “mountain right stone carvings congbian”, and the inscription and Script zan: “the tablet words are yuan MAO ancient jin, han family, the word waves fluent, like Cao Quan tablet, in the Tang tablet foot said divine products.Excavated late, calligraphy and painting is very complete, only the word le, Xun Kebao also.”Still need to another is all previous dynasties epitaph unearthed in changzhi area, there are many volunteers cover the seal character, with a strong decorative taste, bearing on its style bird book the spring and autumn period and the warring states era, the adornment such as text, word, near by the northern and southern dynasties north tablet of decoration in the wind, calligraphy and painting, though sometimes no rules, but full of the appeal of the freedom to indulge, showing humor, happy, relaxed flavor,It’s worth taking special care of.It is of great value to study the evolution of Chinese characters and inspire calligraphy to express a new realm.Song, gold inscriptions, changzhi existing about 51, this period each temple has given the forehead die rich inscriptions relic, notably wuxiang county city ping village (1064) of the first year of the large cloud temple troublesome frontal die, broadcasting the prison get village information four years (1122) “should be feeling god add jue temple die”, changzhi county broadcasting li fang village information and the most hospital gives the forehead so on does not die,Qinxian Dading three years (1163) “Zhaoqing Yuan to repair and grant ultimatum tablet”, dading five years (1165) “Lingyan Yuan imperial Huang Ji and ultimatum text”.Other recorded in early summer construction of qin county Song Yuanfeng three years (1080), “Wilson army new GuanHou temple” and pingshun east village temple of the rebuilt the virgin tablet, which was discovered in recent years the shanxi tee about the construction of the summer, the two-way inscriptions stage, song dynasty recorded in the northern song dynasty period our country rural construction stage in the central plains,It reflects the independence and maturity of Chinese dance and opera, and is valuable for the study of the development history of Chinese drama.”Song Jin Yuan Opera Cultural Relics map” and other works, many times selected the rubbings and words of the two tablets.In the first year (1111) of Song Zhenghe, the oldest son who recorded the sculpture art, the record of new saints in Faxing Temple of Cilin Mountain is of great value to the study of clay sculpture art in song Dynasty.The monument of Wanling Jidao, written in the third year of Jintianjuan (1141) in Qinxian County, which recorded the buddhist poems and articles, reflects some new developments in the development of Buddhism at that time.There are 1346 stele inscriptions of yuan, Ming, Qing and The Republic of China in Changzhi, of which there are many examples with high historical, cultural, scientific and artistic values.Famous are: changzhi county (1314) of the first year of yuan dynasty “shennong temple inscriptional record”, changzhi city yuan to is 21 years (1363) “to take county da LuHua red before suddenly all tamerlane virtue-building”, Ming dynasty epitaph, pingshun Shen Fan series seven years jiajing (1528) “the HongTiGuan inscription,” the eldest son county Ming jiajing (1531) ten years “XuanSheng portrait stone”,Changzhi City Ming Dynasty “Thousandhand Guanyin portrait monument”, Wuxiang County Nanshenshan Jiajing 35 (1556) “Earthquake monument”, Qinxian Qing “Kangxi poem inscription”, Kangxi fifty years (1711) “Wu Iodi royal memorial”, Qianlong seven years (1742) “Zhiyuan Tang fa Shu Tao Yuanming ancient poetry calligraphy post inscription” original stone,Qianlong Gengxu (1790) local scholar Feng Shiqiao set Han Yu word “Chunyang Temple poetry and calligraphy monument”, Lucheng County during the Republic of China “Gejing Ling tree monument”.Pingshun County “the first monument of the Three Jin Dynasties”, engraved magnificent and strange, according to the mountain cliff chiseled for 9.79 meters high, 3 meters wide monument shape.The first tablet carved double chi shape ancient, the body of the tablet is engraved with 5 inscriptions of different times, jiajing Ming dynasty was known as “the first tablet in the Three Jin Dynasty”.At the beginning of the Ming and Qing dynasties, due to the popularity of the rulers of light prose and literary criticism, there were few stone tablets in the world. However, there were abundant stone tablets in Changzhi with high mountains.Revolutionary martyrs and event monuments and stone tablets since liberation, changzhi is rich in preservation.The representative monuments are Qinyuan Memorial to soldiers killed in The War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression, Taihang Taiyue Martyrs Cemetery monument to the Resolution of the First Session of the Second General Assembly of the Shanxi, Hebei, Shandong and Henan Border District Council, and Bushi Minshi Martyrs Monument.The number of lost tablets in Changzhi is very large. After reviewing the related stone and stone writings, local Chronicles, ancient books, and so on, roughly more than 300 tablets are scattered without trace, which need to be visited and searched in the future.All kinds of stone tablets and carvings in the past dynasties in Changzhi occupy an important position in Shanxi Province and even the whole country.The Stone carvings of Nanni Water from the Northern Wei Dynasty to the Song Dynasty in Qin County, the Statues of Beilianghou Village from the Northern Qi Dynasty in Wuxiang County, the Grottoes of Jindeng Temple and The Inscription of Hongtang Guan in Pingshun County in the Ming Dynasty, and the Monument to the Earth of soldiers killed in Anti-Japanese War in Qinyuan County during the Anti-Japanese War have been announced as key cultural relics protection units in Shanxi Province.The city’s collection of 9 precious stone tablets, including “Inscription and Preface of King fu’s Epitaph in The Great Zhou Dynasty”, has been announced as a national first-class collection of cultural relics.Fourteen stone tablets, including epitaph for Du Jun, a former Leading officer of the Tang Dynasty, and Stone Tablet for Kwanyin in the Ming Dynasty, are listed as national cultural relics.Four stone tablets, including “Epitaph of King Nirvana in Song Dynasty” and “Epitaph of Emperor Yongnian and Eldest Son of Emperor Shenfu in Ming Dynasty,” have been designated as class III national cultural relics.(The author works at Changzhi Museum, Shanxi Province)