When Emperor Wudi of the Han dynasty fought against the Huns, he became poorer and poorer. Why did Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty fight with The Turks but usher in the Zhenguan Heyday
Liu Che, emperor Wudi of han Dynasty, was a warlike man. His biggest enemy was the Xiongnu. He reigned for 54 years and fought against them for 44 years.In order to defeat this powerful enemy, the Western Han dynasty spent a lot of manpower, material and financial resources, but the economic difficulties of the Han Dynasty in addition to the cost of fighting against the Xiongnu, there were other costs, such as opening up the Silk Road, and so on.However, the same foreign war, more than 700 years later, Emperor Taizong Li Shimin of the Tang Dynasty, during his reign, also had a fierce enemy — The Turks, the two sides also played games for many years.But why did the Tang Dynasty not be dragged down by the war, but also the whole “zhenguan governance” of the golden age?How does this compare?The following two aspects are elaborated respectively.The financial crisis of Emperor Wudi of han Dynasty was about 200 BC. The nomadic peoples scattered in present-day Gansu, Ningxia, inner and outer Mongolia were mainly donghu, Dayue, Wusun, Xiongnu and many other tribes, among which the xiongnu was the most powerful.In its heyday, the population of xiongnu was only about 2 million, less than one tenth of that of the Western Han, but its military power was extremely strong. The siege of Bai Deng, which Liu Bang encountered, is the best proof.After the siege of Bai Deng, the Han Dynasty adopted a policy of “peace and affinity” in order to maintain peace along the border.But the weakness of the han dynasty military has been through xiongnu situation is caused by the xiongnu people not only to han Chinese girl, is still often harassing the han dynasty border, and even a few times soldier back at changan, changan oasis near the palace by the huns burned several times, this situation has been lasted for more than seventy years, until the emperor Liu Che appear to change the passive situation.Liu Che the launch of the huns conquests, mainly thanks to the early succession economically powerful, the han dynasty and xiongnu and policy provided the space for the rest of the western han dynasty, from the early han embraced times acceded to the throne to the emperor of seventy years, country does not appear serious political turmoil, there is no serious severe famine, folk JiaGeiHuZu, granary is full,The financial surplus of the imperial court is also large, so that it can be said that the governance of Wenjing laid a solid economic foundation for emperor Wudi to attack xiongnu.The Han Dynasty fought three large-scale wars with the Huns, each of which cost a great deal of money.For example, in the decisive battle of Mobei, Liu Che mobilized 100,000 cavalry, led by Wei Qing and Huo Qubing, divided into two ways of attack.This time, responsible for transporting logistics horses reached 40,000, infantry transport of hundreds of thousands of people, its logistics support can be described as unprecedented scale.There is no doubt that the Han dynasty spent a lot of money on the War against xiongnu, but in addition to fighting against xiongnu, it also spent a lot on engineering construction, such as the development of hexi Corridor and Hetao Plain, where counties were set up and cities were built. It can be said that they would not hesitate to spend money to establish a foothold here.He also spent a lot on opening up the Silk Road. In order to form an alliance with the Western regions, Liu Che adopted a strategy of fighting and pulling.Zhang Qian took the lead in the icebreaking journey between the Han Dynasty and the Western regions. It took him 13 years to make his first mission to the Western Regions. Although he did not establish an alliance with the Dayue clan, he created the myth of Chinese history, a cultural road connecting China and the West.After Zhang Qian, Emperor Wudi of han sent diplomatic missions to the states of the Western Regions for many times. He conquered Loulan and Cheshi by force. After establishing an alliance with Wusun, he launched a war against the Kingdom of Dayuan.At the same time, in order to make good relations with the Western regions, the Han Dynasty also sent a large amount of property to various countries.In addition, Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty also cleaned the Yellow River twice on a large scale, using more than 100,000 troops to repair the Yellow River from east to west.In addition, his private life is also very rich, and to reward the emperor’s son, Taishan zen and other activities, and the construction of their own mausoleum was built for about 50 years, these costs are not small.In 120 BC, the war with xiongnu changed from passive to active, and the military expenditure increased, and the settlement of xiongnu troops also had to spend money, plus other expenses, emperor Wudi’s financial difficulties, to 124, the wealth accumulated by the rule of Wenjing almost spent.However, even worse than the lack of money, the Western Han also had problems with its economic policies.The Western Han dynasty originally adopted a policy of emphasizing agriculture, suppressing commerce, and reducing corvee and taxes. However, due to the development of commodity economy, merchants in various regions became powerful and powerful through business. In order to improve their political status, they began to buy land and land and became the emerging landlord class.As a result, the new class of landlords had dual identities, being both Han landlords and merchants.After the founding of the Western Han Dynasty, the policy of low tax rate was implemented, and taxes on the huge profits of industry and commerce were very low.In addition, after acquiring new identities, these new landlords colluded with the government to evade taxes by inventing various kinds of names, so that in the end, important industries that controlled the life of the national economy were in the hands of these rich tycoons.Before emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty, the whole country of the Western Han Dynasty believed in the doctrine of Huang-Lao Inaction and adopted the policy of non-interference in the folk economy. As time passed, the government lost control over the folk economy.In addition to the land annexation problem, the gap between the rich and the poor is inevitable, etc., many economic problems are waiting for emperor Wudi to do mediation.In order to raise money, Emperor Wudi had to carry out reforms, such as the mobei War military expenditure, is obtained from the reform of salt and iron, but there will be a variety of problems in the reform, or need to solve the Emperor.To sum up, no matter whether emperor Wudi fought against xiongnu or fought against western Regions, he was burdened with great economic pressure.But even so, he was a preliminary delineation of China, Emperor Han Wudi is worthy of a great emperor.So why did Emperor Taizong of the Tang dynasty make a “zhenguan governance” when he was engaged in foreign wars?Foreign Wars of Taizong Of the Tang Dynasty Li Shimin was the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty. In the early days of the founding of the People’s Republic of China, Li Shimin carried out a series of civil wars for the regions of the Tang Dynasty, such as the suppression of liu Hejian, Wang Shicong and other separatist forces.After he was in power, he carried out a series of foreign wars, such as: the contest with The Turks, the battle of Tuyuhun, and a series of wars with the Western Regions.Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty dared to challenge the Xiongnu, and benefited economically from the accumulation of his ancestors. It can be said that he spent most of his life in the contest with the Xiongnu.After the disaster of sorcery, he issued luntai Crime Jizhao, after which Emperor Wudi began to govern the country and the Han Dynasty entered the stage of recuperation.However, Emperor Taizong’s line was different from that of Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty. After he succeeded to the throne, he experienced great chaos in the late Sui Dynasty, the Treasury was empty in the early Tang Dynasty, and people’s livelihood was ruined. Facing the provocation of The Turks, Li Shimin was very aware of himself.Therefore, he adopted measures of compromise towards the Turks.For example, the establishment of the Weishui Alliance.After years of development, the Turks had been divided into two groups in the Sui Dynasty, namely the Eastern Turks and the Western Turks. Later, emperor Wen of The Sui Dynasty allied with the Western Turks and defeated the Eastern Turks. After that, the Eastern Turks were depressed for a period of time, but at the end of the Sui Dynasty, they rose up again and became a powerful force of the Tang Dynasty.As early as when Li Yuan and his son Jinyang raised an army, they had paid tribute to the Turks in order to secure the world.After the founding of the Great Tang Dynasty, Gaozu also sent a lot of gold and silver treasures to the Turks.But there was no end to the greed of the Turkic nobles. In order to better plunder the Central Plains, they took the money of The Tang dynasty while secretly supporting the enemies of the Tang Dynasty. Xue Ju, Liu Wuzhou, Liang Shidu, Wang Shicong and other separatist forces had received support from the Turkic people, and even borrowed troops.In the seventh year of Wude (624), the Eastern Turks invaded the Capital. Before a large number of soldiers and horses of the Tang army could return to the capital, Gaozu sent Li Shimin, the king of Qin at that time, to solve the problem. After taking money from the Tang Dynasty, the Turks left.In the ninth year of Wude (626), just after the xuanwu Gate rebellion was over, the Eastern Turks invaded the territory again, taking advantage of the political turmoil in tang dynasty.This time, Li Shimin led the negotiations and finally concluded the alliance of Weishui. After that, the Turks withdrew with money.From the above description, it can be seen that the main policy of the early Tang Dynasty towards The Turks was to use money to eliminate disasters and buy peace.So, why didn’t Tang send troops to deal with this unsavory Turk?The biggest reason was lack of money, so Li Shimin focused on economic construction in addition to military training, and then waited for the opportunity to wipe out The Turks in one fell swoop.Therefore, zhenguan three years (629 years), once the time is mature, Li Shimin will not delay the fighter.At that time, conflicts broke out among the Eastern Turks. In November, Taizong dispatched 100,000 troops headed by Li Jing to pacify the once dominant Eastern Turks in less than half a year. From then on, the northern border was finally quiet.After the east Turkic army was settled, Taizong successively aimed at Tuyuhun, and it was already eight years (634) when fighting this war. Besides, it was far less difficult to deal with Tuyuhun than east Turkic.Then he went to crusade against the disobedient small countries in the Western Regions, which had already reached the thirteenth year of Zhenguan (639).After pacifying these small countries, the road of the western regions was completely opened, thus opening a new chapter of the Silk Road.In addition, it is also very important that when Emperor Wudi of the Han dynasty fought against the Xiongnu, it was a time when the Xiongnu was strong and prosperous. After that, He also experienced the division of the Xiongnu. It can be said that Emperor Wudi not only participated in, but also witnessed the process of the xiongnu from strength to decline.By contrast, when Li Shimin met the Turks, the Turks had been divided into the east and the West, and their strength was weakened accordingly. Therefore, it was only when Emperor Taizong concentrated on fighting the East Turks that he had the possibility of winning at one fell swoop.It can be seen that the reason why Taizong’s foreign wars did not affect the formation of the prosperous period of “Zhenguan’s Governance” was that the opponents were not as powerful as the Huns and had limited influence on the internal governance of the Tang Dynasty.Second, the initial policy of compromise bought time for internal governance.To sum up, why emperor Wudi of Han Dynasty fought foreign wars more and more poor, and why Emperor Taizong of Tang Dynasty could whole zhenguan, basically said over, if there is a supplement, comment area.