It makes their world suddenly sound
The sound of traffic on the street, the sound of birds singing in the sky, the sound of family concerns in the room…These are common to most people, but to some people, they are more valuable.They don’t know what the whistle is, what the key is…The advent of “cochlear implants” may help them make up for these regrets and enjoy normal happiness in life.According to statistics in March 2021, there are about 27.8 million people with hearing disabilities in China, accounting for 33.5 percent of the 82.96 million disabled people in China, ranking first among all kinds of disabilities. Among them, there are about 137,000 children with hearing disabilities aged 0-6.And at a rate of 30,000 to 100,000 new cases of deafness every year.At present, cochlear implantation is the only effective treatment for patients with severe and extremely severe hearing loss.However, unfortunately, the rate of cochlear implantation for hearing-impaired people in China is less than 1%, which is due to a variety of reasons, such as low public awareness of cochlear implantation, inadequate grassroots training and economic constraints.Today, let’s learn about cochlear implants with Pangke ~1, what is deafness?Hearing system, sound transmission, sensory sound and auditory conduction pathway in the auditory nerve and all levels of central disease, cause hearing dysfunction, produce different degrees of hearing loss, collectively referred to as deafness.According to different Angle can be different classification of deafness, if according to the pathological part of the division, can be roughly divided into three categories: conductive deafness, external ear and middle ear lesions;Sensorineural deafness, inner ear cochlea, auditory nerve, auditory center of the brain lesions;Mixed deafness involves lesions in both the auditory and sensory parts of the ear.2. How does a cochlear implant work?So why say “cochlear implant is the only effective treatment to restore hearing”?How does a cochlear implant help people hear?Before we solve these problems, let’s take a look at how the cochlea works in normal people.The human ear mainly consists of three parts, the outer ear, the middle ear and the inner ear. The cochlea we are talking about is the inner ear. It is a spiral bone tube similar to the spiral shell of a snail, so it is called “cochlea”.The tube is filled with incompressible lymphatic fluid, which is caused by vibrations from the middle ear, and then converted into electrical signals through other components of the ear, which stimulate the auditory nerve in the cochlea, and the nerve excitatory neurons transmit to the brain’s language center.Cochlear implant replaces the normal cochlea by converting sound signals in the environment into electrical signals and providing electrical impulses to auditory nerve fibers in the cochlea to restore hearing.Cochlear implants consist of an implant inside the body, an electrode array, and an external voice processor, head, microphone, and wires.The core part is the sound processor, mainly responsible for processing the voice signal, extract useful parameter information for speech coding, and transmit to the stimulation chip implanted in the human ear, to decide which electrode to stimulate and stimulate the size of the current, we can hear the size of the sound depends on it.Due to the artificial cochlea consists of two parts, in vivo and in vitro, and its working principle can be divided into two parts to view: in vitro part works: first thing in the microphone is used to collect the external environment of sound, through the sound processor, the voice signal into digital signal, again through the head of the induction coil, wireless transmission to internal implants.Part of how it works in the body: A microprocessor decodes the received digital signals and converts them back into electrical signals, which are sent to specific locations in a series of electrodes to stimulate nerve fibers in the cochlea and then sent to the computer’s hearing center, where the brain recognizes the signals as sounds.3. Can deaf patients be fitted with cochlear implants?It can be seen that “cochlear implant” is undoubtedly a great blessing for people with hearing impairment.However, not all patients can choose cochlear implant surgery, and the operation itself has certain limitations and requirements: Physical condition: Cochlear implant is an open operation, and the contraindications of conventional general anesthesia are suitable for it.Patients with epilepsy in the acute phase of the onset of cochlear implants can not be carried out when the stable phase of surgery can be carried out.In addition, cochlear implants are not recommended for patients with severe psychological problems or intolerance to general anesthesia.In addition, age is also an important factor affecting the effectiveness of cochlear implants.For patients with severe or very severe hearing loss, especially children, cochlear implantation should be carried out as early as possible in order to achieve better recovery results.Degree of hearing loss: Hearing AIDS are recommended for mild to moderate hearing loss, while cochlear implants may be considered for severe or very severe neurological hearing loss.In general, hearing AIDS are recommended when the patient’s hearing threshold is below 70dB, and cochlear implants are required when the hearing threshold is above 70dB.Cost: Cochlear implants can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars, and for many families, that’s a lot of money.Even if all of these requirements are met, cochlear implant surgery is not always possible.To accept surgery patients but also in medical history collection, so you can more understand the cause of the disease, such as hearing for the patient history, history of tinnitus and dizziness, ear poison drug exposure history, past history otology diseases, developmental factors, family history of deafness, wear hearing AIDS, history, etc., these factors will affect the implant success.4. What is the difference between hearing AIDS and cochlear implants?In life, we also commonly see that some hearing impaired people will wear hearing AIDS. Under what circumstances should they wear hearing AIDS?When is cochlear implant surgery necessary?This is related to the classification of deafness mentioned above.Conductive deafness is caused by blockage of the outer ear or middle ear resulting in sound cannot be transmitted to the inner ear, greatly reducing hearing. This kind of deafness can greatly enhance hearing function with hearing AIDS.We can simply understand the hearing aid as a bridge, which can transport sound smoothly to the inner ear, so that the auditory system is restored. The whole working process belongs to the physical method, and there is no operation of signal conversion.Sensorineural deafness is different, it is because the ear is responsible for sound vibrations into electronic signals of partial necrosis, make our brain receives less than the voice of the acoustic transmission signal, the hearing AIDS are unable to work, can only carry on the cochlear implant surgery, electronic cochlea belongs to the electronic device, the overall operation will be more careful.In fact, the difference between hearing aid and cochlear implant can be attributed to two aspects: first, hearing aid amplifies the input sound signal and still outputs sound signal, while cochlear implant ultimately outputs electrical signal;Another difference is that the gain effect of hearing AIDS is not as significant as cochlear implants. For mild to moderate or moderate to severe hearing loss, hearing AIDS can meet the use requirements, but for severe or very severe hearing loss, only cochlear implants can compensate.Cochlear implant is of great significance to patients with deafness. With continuous research and exploration, its related technologies and surgical techniques have made great progress, and the age limit for implantation has decreased and the concept of minimally invasive surgery has been constantly updated. It is believed that this field will bring more hope to more patients with severe deafness in the future.